Maui and Hawaiian Chronology
|B.C. - 1795
|1900 - 1959
The Territory of Hawaii
|1795 - 1893
The Kingdom of Hawaii
The State of Hawaii
|1893 - 1898
The Republic of Hawaii
Early Asiatic civilization combined with American Indian civilization for a cultural diffusion across the Pacific (Oceania). The appearance of fabrics at Huaca Preita in Peru about 2500 B.C. evidences the presence of domestic cottons, of Asian introduction. Centerboards, fore-and-aft rigged sails in Southeast Asia and Indo-Pacific (Brazil, Peru), South American metal techniques and pottery of Asian influence, South American writing with at least two or three signs identical in form and meaning with early Chinese forms, the game of pachisi, sweet potatoes, hibiscus (hibiscus rosasinensis; considered to be an Asiatic plant is biologically adapted to the activities of American hummingbirds and not Asiatic bird pollinators), and an "Andean element" in the flora of Hawaii (including argemone, an American poppy) suggest Hawaii as a staging point for peoples maintaining a trans-Pacific contact between Asia and the northwest coast of South America.
Polynesians from the South Pacific, probably the Marquesas Islands, begin migration to Hawaii in double-hulled voyaging canoes.
One of Hawaii's first heiau, "Mookini Luakini," is built on the Big Island.
Main Hawaiian Islands are occupied.
Tahitian explorers arrive, initiating a second wave of immigration; they subdue and enslave the more primitive inhabitants.
The backbone of Hawaiian culture begins to emerge as social classes are established and the islanders split into tribes, adorning themselves with feathered capes, helmets and jewelry made from shells and human teeth.
Approximately 1736 - 1758
Kamehameha the Great is born on Kokala Coast, Hawaii.
According to Hawaiian astronomers of the time, a brilliant celestial star appeared in the sky the year of his birth (probably 1758 return of Halley's Comet).
Kahekili becomes ruling chief
Birth of Ka'ahumanu
January 18, 1778: Captain James Cook, British commander of HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, sights Oahu and Kauai. Cook names the "Sandwich Islands" after the Earl of Sandwich, first lord of the admiralty.
February 13, 1779: Captain James Cook is slain at water's edge at Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii.
Birth of Kapiolani
Accession of Kamehameha
Kamehameha takes Ka'ahumanu for his wife
Kamehameha deserts Ka'ahumanu
Kaima, a local chieftain, sails with fur trader ship "Nootka" to China and North America. His return in 1788 encourages other Hawaiians to sign on other ships.
Battle of Ka'uwa'u-pali (Clawed off the cliff) & Ke-pani-wai (Damming of the Waters)
Kamehameha fills Maui's Kahului harbor with a fleet of war canoes and a cannon (operated by two Europeans: John Young and Issac Davis). On the 3rd day of war, Kamehameha brings out the cannon and slaughters Maui's then-reigning King Kahekili's warriors.
Rum introduced to Hawaiians.
March 1, 1792: Captain George Vancouver's (1758-1798) first of three visits (between 1792 and 1794) to "aid so far as possible in the improvement of the early nationalities," by order of Britain's King George III and to continue exploration and survey of the Sandwich Islands.
On his second trip, Vancouver brings cows from California, introducing cattle-raising to Hawaii.
February 25, 1794: King Kamehameha and principal chiefs assemble on HMS Discovery in Kealakekua Bay and in presence of Captain George Vancouver and Lieutenant Peter Puget, cedes the Big Island of Hawaii to Vancouver's sovereign Great Britain, acknowledging themselves to be subjects of Great Britain.
1795 - 1893
The Kingdom of Hawaii
Kamehameha conquers Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Oahu.
Accession of Kamehameha I as King of the Kingdom of Hawaii (born approx 1736 - 1758 - died May 8, 1819)
Kamehameha unsuccessfully invades Kauai
Birth of Kamehameha II ("Liholiho").
A Chinese entrepreneur brings a sugar mill and boiler aboard a sandalwood trading ship and starts first sugar production on Lanai.
Unknown epidemic disease decimates Hawaiian population.
Kamehameha weds Kekauluohi
Kamehameha wins sovereignty over Kauai through island diplomacy and unifies all Hawaiian islands under a single rule.
May 8, 1819: Kamehameha dies in Kona.
Accession of Kamehameha II (Iolani Liholiho, 1797-1824) and Queen Kaahumanu as joint rulers of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Kamehameha II orders destruction of all heiau and end to the kapu (taboo) system idol worship, abolishing traditional Hawaiian religion.
Arrival of French ship at Kawaihae.
September: First whaleships from New England arrive.
March 30, 1820: PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES: First Protestant New England missionaries arrive on "Thaddeus," at Kailua, Hawaii.
November 27, 1823: Kamehameha II and members of royal family board English whaler "L'Aigle" and set sail for England. Arriving in England the following Spring, Queen Kamamalu contracts measles and dies. Kamehameha II dies a week later: July 14, 1824.
July 14, 1824: Kamehameha II dies.
Ship returns Kamehameha II's body.
June 6, 1825: Accession of Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli, 1814-1854). Queen Kaahumanu continues as regent.
Cultivation of cotton and sugar.
Protestant missionaries write Hawaiian-language bible, translating Hawaiian spoken language to 7 consonants (h, k, l, m, n, p, w) and 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u).
Severe epidemic kills chiefs and commoners.
December 27, 1826: First general tax enacted; to provide revenue for shipbuilding and other commercial developments.
July 7, 1827: CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES: French ship, Comete, brings Roman Catholic missionaries to Honolulu.
Two Chinese introduce a sugar mill on Maui.
Birth of Kamehameha V
December 31, 1831: Hawaiians send Catholic priests home, after discord develops between French Catholic priests, local residents and American Protestant groups.
Lahainaluna School opens in Maui.
First large-scale sugar plantation started at Koloa, Kauai.
Reverend D. Baldwin moves to Lahaina.
Hawaii's first boarding school for girls opens in Wailuku. (Now home of Bailey House Museum, operated by the Maui Historical Society)
October 8, 1840: Kamehameha III proclaims First Constitution; includes provisions for freedom of worship.
Arrival of Catholics under Bishop Rouchouze.
Death of Kapiolani
U.S. President John Tyler recognizes the Kingdom of Hawaii by invoking the Monroe Doctrine to discourage intervention by European powers; agrees to Hawaiian independence.
February 10, 1843: British frigate "Carysfort" arrives in Honolulu and demands "provisional cession" of kingdom to Great Britain, a misdirected effort to insure permanent British influence in the Hawaiian islands.
July 26, 1843: Admiral Richard Thomas arrives in HMS flagship "Dublin" with instructions to rescind cession and complete favorable trade treaty.
July 31, 1843: Hawaiian flag again raised in ceremonies that included British recognition of the Hawaiian kingdom. In celebration of the return of the kingdom to Kamehameha III, royal clemency is granted to all prisoners; all prisons and penal colonies in Hawaii are vacated.
U.S. ratifies recognition of Hawaii
March 9, 1844: American attorney John Ricord reorganizes legal codes of the Hawaiian kingdom, establishing a cabinet system of government, and creation of land commission to modernize feudal tenurial system, and organization of a court system that includes local judicial services throughout the islands.
The Hawaiian capital is moved from whaling port of Lahaina to the Honolulu harbor.
March 19, 1864: Joseph De Veuster arrives in Honululu.
1846 - 1855
The Great Mahele, privatization of lands. The division of lands between public lands (including a special category of Crown lands) and private land to be owned and transferred by ordinary citizens.
King Kamehameha III, his chiefs, Hawaiians and foreigners convert traditional Hawaiian land ownership ("Ahupua'a") to Western fee-simple titles.
Measles introduced; epidemic.
April: French consul, Guillame P. Dillon, seeks to arrange French acquisition of the Hawaiian islands. British and American protest lead to repudiation of Dillon's plan.
MORMON MISSIONARIES: Mormon missionaries arrive.
June 21, 1850: Hawaiian legislature authorizes establishment of a contract labor system, as means to bring needed work forces to Hawaiian islands.
August: A resolution of Hawaii's Privy Council officially designates Honolulu as the Kingdom's capital.
CHINESE MIGRATION: First Chinese contract workers arrive.
June 14, 1852: New Constitution promulgated by Kamehameha III, to replace simple Constitution of 1840, incorporating many of Ricord's reforms of 1844 and establishing a stronger government to assure continued international recognition.
December 15, 1854: Death of Kamehameha III
January 11, 1855: Accession of Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho, 1834-1863)
William Hyde Rice completed the first irrigation ditch for sugar for the Lihue Plantation in East Kauai.
November 30, 1863: Death of Kamehameha IV (age 29)
Accession of Kamehameha V (Lot, 1830-1872)
May 31, 1864: Joseph De Veuster is ordained at Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu; now known as Father Damien; shortly thereafter he is sent to Puna on the Big Island.
August 20, 1864: Seeking greater economic independence, strong trade agreements with Britain and France, and a more favorable sugar import agreement with the United States, Kamehameha IV abrogates Constitution of 1852 and replaces it with less liberal one.
Father Damien is transferred to Districts of Kohala and Hamakua were he spends next 8 years.
Hawaiian government establishes a place for banishing patients with Hansen's Disease ("leprosy") at Kalawao, Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai.
January: First Hansen Disease patients arrive at Kalawao, Molokai.
December 23, 1866: 35 Hansen Disease patients gather to organize the congregation Siloame and establish first church at Kalawao, Molokai.
May 21, 1867: Hawaiian-American reciprocity treaty achieves goal of Kamehameha V in opening new sugar market for kingdom of Hawaii. American ratification is delayed until 1870 by opposition of sugar lobby in Senate.
JAPANESE MIGRATION: First Japanese contract workers arrive.
Samuel T. Alexander and Henry P. Baldwin (both missionary sons) buy 12 acres in upper Paia to grow sugar cane
"Siloame, The Church of the Healing Spring" is dedicated at Kalawao, Molokai.
Brother Victovin Bertrant builds wooden chapel in Honolulu and transports it to Kalawao, Molokai. It is blessed May 30th and dedicated to St. Philomena. This church is later expanded by Father Damien, and then commonly known as "Father Damien's Church."
December 11, 1872: Death of Kamehameha V (age 42).
Pursuant to new Constitution, special session of Legislature is called to select new King from 2 candidates: William Charles Lunalilo and David Kalakaua. Lunalilo proposes popular referendum on selection; landslide vote leads Legislature to declare him the next king.
January 10, 1873: Selections for new cabinet reflects restoration of American influence; all but one of the cabinet appointees is American-born. King Lunalilo's lack of sympathy for traditional Hawaiian customs soon undermines his popularity.
May 10, 1873: Father Damien de Veuster, at age 33, arrives on Molokai to aid Hansen Disease victims.
William C. Lunalilo (1835-1874) is elected King, last of the Kamehameha dynasty.
Makawao residents in Maui employ Professor William D. Alexander (brother of Samuel and James Alexander) to make a preliminary survey of a proposed route for an aqueduct from Hamakua Maui streams to Makawao.
February 3, 1874: King Lunalilo dies.
February 12, 1874: David Kalakaua (The "Merrie Monarch," 1836-1891) elected King by the Legislature.
November 17, 1874: King Kalakaua sails for United States on American warship "Benicia" on goodwill tour and to achieve a more favorable reciprocity treaty.
January 30, 1875: Hawaii-United States Treaty is signed, opening broad market for Hawaiian exports and marking the beginning of great prosperity for the islands. Americans invest in large-scale irrigated farming and improved sugar refining processes.
March 1876: Harry Baldwin's right arm is amputated after a mill accident
August 1876: Reciprocity Treaty with the United States is ratified and takes effect; giving unprecedented boost to island sugar industry.
August 21, 1876: A&B seek to bring water from crown lands in East Maui to Paia sugar fields. Application made to King Kalakaua just 6 days after U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs act of Congress putting the Reciprocity Treaty into effect. It is stipulated that the ditch be finished within 2 years.
November 2, 1876: Hamakua Ditch Company (present-day "East Maui Irrigation Company") is formed: Company owners to share costs and water: Haiku Sugar owned 9/20 shares, A&B owned 5/20 shares; James Alexander 2/20 shares; Grove Ranch/T.H. Hobron 4/20 shares.
Claus Spreckels (San Francisco sugar baron) explores undeveloped lands on Maui and Samuel Alexander points out opportunities. Spreckels later claims this is when he first conceived idea for his first ditch.
Spreckels returns to Hawaii with Herman Schussler, irrigation engineer with plans for 30-mile ditch.
Spreckels requests rights from Kalakaua; however, Kalakaua's cabinet says no.
King Kalakaua dismisses disagreeable cabinet, and at a midnight meeting with new cabinet gives Spreckels rights to build his ditch. Kalakaua's books show a loan of $4,000 from Spreckels on this date.
It is stipulated that the A&B "Hamakua" ditch would to go to Spreckels if the A&B ditch were not completed by September 30, 1978 (within the 2 years previously allotted).
September 1878: A&B ditch completed: 23 months to build 17 miles of ditch, cost: $80,000 and 200 men, capable of carrying 40 million gallons of water a day.
Spreckels begins work on 2nd ditch
PORTUGESE MIGRATION: Portugese land at McGregor Point
- Hawaiians call small Portugese 4-string guitar a "ukulele" (leaping flea), after the nickname of the quick-fingered Hawaiian who popularized the instrument.
King Kalakaua increasingly invokes extraordinary powers of the Constitution to dismiss cabinets that fail to ratify his proposals, leading to increasing corruption in government.
Claus Spreckels and Celso Caesar Moreno (Italian ship owner) gain profitable positions in Kalakaua administration.
August 14, 1880: Celso Caesar Moreno becomes Prime Minister after King Kalakaua suspends the legislative session for failing to grant $10 million loan to steamship company. Popular uprising forces Moreno to resign five days later.
King Kalakaua travels around the world to promote commerce and encourage immigration to Hawaii.
King Kalakaua holds coronation ceremony at newly built Iolani Palace; revives the hula.
Father Damien is diagnosed with Hansen's Disease.
King Kalakaua signs Opium Bill.
Marketable pineapples introduced to Hawaiian islands from Jamaica.
U.S. Senate ratifies an extension of the Reciprocity Treaty with Hawaii on condition of American acquisition of a Naval Base at Pearl Harbor. Upon public assurances that the cession of Pearl Harbor would not compromise Hawaiian sovereignty, King Kalakaua ratifies the treaty on October 20; U.S. President Grover Cleveland proclaims the treaty on November 9.
Demands of American residents for radical political reforms result in proclamation of new Constitution, providing for "Cabinet Government." This "Bayonet Constitution" abolishes King Kalakaua's power to dismiss cabinets at will, and creates a legislative power to override his veto.
November 14, 1888: Mother Marianne, Sister Leopoldina, Sister Vicent arrive at Kalawao settlement in Molokai, and establish the Bishop Home For Girls.
April 15, 1889: Father Damien de Veuster dies of Hansen's Disease on Molokai (age 49).
July 30, 1889: Disgruntled with King Kalakaua, native Hawaiians, a growing number of anti-monarchists and reformers, unsuccessfully attempt a coup d'etat.
Author Robert Louis Stevenson arrives in Honolulu.
January 20, 1891: King Kalakaua dies during visit to San Francisco
January 29, 1891: Kalakaua's sister, Liliuokalani (1838-1917, becomes last reigning monarch of Hawaii.
Grumbling under Queen Liliuokalani's firm independent rule, and the severe depression caused by the McKinley Tariff of 1890, American sugar interests in Hawaii begin plans for overthrowing the Kingdom of Hawaii and its annexation by the United States.
January 14, 1893: Aware of growing opposition against her, Queen Liliuokalani proposes a new Constitution to appease some of the Hawaiian leaders and undercut American plotters. Her new cabinet; however, refuses to approve the draft.
January 17, 1893: Annexation uprising begins.
Government office building is seized, from which a public proclamation is made of the end of the monarchy and establishment of a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole, a member of the Hawaiian Supreme Court.
American minister, John B. Stevens, supports Dole's group by landing marines from the USS Boston, then in Honolulu harbor.
February 14, 1893: Anticipating immediate annexation, the provisional government dispatches a commission to Washington empowered to draft a treaty of annexation. U.S. President Benjamin Harrison (R) signs this treaty and promptly submits it to the Senate.
The Senate fails to act on the Treaty before President Harrison's term expires.
Hawaiian Monarchy overthrown.
Provisional government instituted.
1893 - 1898
The Republic of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii is established. U.S. President Grover Cleveland (D) recognizes the Republic of Hawaii, with Sanford Dole (1844-1926) as its President.
Suspecting foul play in overthrow of Hawaii, President Cleveland withdraws annexation treaty from Senate and opposes acquisition of the islands. Annexationists abandon hope with Cleveland in office.
Conspirators seeking to restore the monarchy by a coup d'etat are surprised and captured at Waikiki. Perceiving that the New Republic of Hawaii had received general diplomatic recognition, Queen Liliuokalani agrees to absolute abdication of her throne and takes oath of allegiance to the Republic.
The government of the New Republic of Hawaii passes English language law:
"The English language shall be the medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools. ... Any school that shall not conform to the provisions of this section shall not be recognized by the Department."
June 16, 1897: Recently inaugurated U.S. President William McKinley (R) submits a new treaty of annexation. Though supported by majority of Senate, not enough for required 2/3 vote.
September 10, 1897: Hawaiian President Dole signs Annexation Treaty and Hawaiian Senate approves it.
Spreckel's company, Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar, is taken over by Maui sugar planters.
May 1898: Outbreak of Spanish-American War. Hawaii's Honolulu regime, fearful of Spanish cruisers in its waters decides to aid the U.S.
Hawaii becomes U.S. Base of Operations against Philippines. Hawaii is the necessary coaling station in the Pacific.
July 7, 1898: Annexationists in Congress devise plan to circumvent 2/3 vote requirement for ratification and substitute resolution of annexation to both Houses. House of Representatives adopts resolution on June 15, the Senate adopts resolution on July 6, President McKinley signs Treaty on July 7th.
August 12, 1898: United States annexation of Hawaii. The Republic of Hawaii cedes and transfers approximately 1.75 million acres of government and Crown lands to the United States.
1900 - 1959
The Territory of Hawaii
Territory (Organic Act)
June: The Territory of Hawaii is inaugurated. U.S. President William McKinley signs the Organic Act, defining the status of the territory and its framework of government.
The Organic Act confirms the Republic of Hawaii's cession of lands to the United States, and provides that the Territory of Hawaii would retain control and management of the ceded lands, except those lands "set aside" for the United States.
1st Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole
December 23, 1900: PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION: 56 Puerto Ricans. The first to come to Hawaiian Islands, landed at Lahaina to work the sugar mill at Pioneer Mill in Lahaina.
James Dole organizes Hawaiian Pineapple Company.
2nd Territorial Governor George B. Carter (1866-1933)
The government of the Territory of Hawaii passes a law forbidding use of Hawaiian language in the schools.
3rd Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (1863-1948)
Hamakua Ditch Company becomes "East Maui Irrigation"
Construction of Pearl Harbor begins.
September 4, 1910: The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (now the University of Hawaii) opens its doors.
Pearl Harbor opens as U.S. Naval Base.
Hawaiian's surfing legend, Duke Kahanamoku winds gold medal in the 100-meter freestyle swim at Olympic Games, Sweden.
4th Territorial Governor Lucius E. Pinkham (1913-1918)
5th Territorial Governor Charles J. McCarthy (1918-1921)
Frank E. Midkiff becomes president of Kamehameha Schools and reinstates Hawaiian language at the school, making it a required course for seniors.
The Molasses Trade
6th Territorial Governor Wallace R. Farrington (1871-1933)
Hawaiian Pineapple Company purchases most of Lanai, introducing large-scale planting, canning and shipping.
Flight of John Rodgers from West Coast to Hawaiian waters.
The Royal Hawaiian Hotel on Waikiki Beach opens.
First nonstop flight from U.S. Mainland to Honolulu.
7th Territorial Governor Lawrence M. Judd (1887-1968)
8th Territorial Governor Joseph B. Poindexter (1869-1951)
Trans-Pacific passenger airline service established by Pan American Airlines.
December 7, 1941: Japanese attack U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor. Islands placed under martial law.
9th Territorial Governor Ingram M. Stainback (1883-1961)
July 19, 1944: Democratic National Convention formally endorses statehood for Hawaii
December 22, 1945: U.S. Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, with direct responsibility for territorial government, officially recommends statehood for Hawaii, on basis of its outstanding record during World War II.
January 7, 1946: House of Representatives Territorial Committee opened first hearings on statehood question. Over next ten years, the statehood question gains favor in the House, but opposition in the Senate.
February 2, 1948: U.S. President Harry S. Truman endorses Hawaii statehood bill in annual message to Congress.
10th Territorial Governor Oren E. Long (1889-1965)
11th Territorial Governor Samuel Wilder King (1886-1959)
12th Territorial Governor William F. Quinn (1919 - )
The State of Hawaii
August 21, 1959: Statehood; U.S. President Eisenhower proclaims statehood.
Hawaii is admitted as the United States' 50th state.
As a compact of statehood, the United States transfers former Hawaiian Government and Crown lands to the state of Hawaii, and places the land in a public trust. The Admission Act provides that the land and its proceeds must be used only for Native Hawaiians and specific public purposes.
August: William Quinn takes office as Hawaii's First State Governor.
1st State Governor John A. Burns (1909 - 1975)
Miconia was first introduced to Maui as an ornamental plant in Hana, then quickly spread to the surrounding forests. By 1993, one plant had multiplied into thousands, distributed over a 2,000-acre area.
Groundwater Use Act (HRS, Ch 177)
Constitutional Convention establishes the Office of Hawaiian Affairs ("OHA") and designates it as the body which is to hold title to all real or personal property set aside or conveyed to it as a trust for Native Hawaiians.
At the Constitutional Convention, a provision is passed granting Hawaiian language the same official status as English. A second provision is also passed mandating that the study of Hawaiian language be given special promotion by the State.
A group of Hawaiian language teachers organize on Kauai to form "'Aha Punana Leo, Inc.," to promote Hawaiian language education.
John Waihee, first elected governor of Hawaiian ancestry, takes office as Hawaii's Fourth Governor.
The United States' first indigenous language immersion classes of elementary school level opens; one at Keaukaha Elementary School in Hilo and the other at Waiau Elementary School in Pearl City, Oahu. One year later, the state Board of Education proclaims the public schools' language immersion program ("Kula Kaiapuni Hawaii") a success and grants the program permission to continue.
Water Code Enacted (Act 45, SLH 1987; codified at HRS, Ch 174(c))
Hawaii Legislature creates Hale Kuam'o Hawaiian Language Center at University of Hawaii, Hilo.
Hawaii State Board of Education approves continuation of Kula Kaiapuni Hawaii (the public schools' language immersion program) through 12th grade.
November 23, 1991: East Maui Watershed Partnership is formed to protect East Maui's watershed. Members are East Maui Irrigation Company, Haleakala National Park, Haleakala Ranch, the Nature Conservancy, the State Department of Land and Natural Resources, and Keola Hana Maui. The partnership sponsors activities including public educational programs, animal and week control, resource monitoring, and infrastructure management.
June 29, 1997: Governor Benjamin Cayetano signs a bill establishing a Hawaiian language college (a part of the University of Hawaii, Hilo), the first in the United States to be conducted entirely in a Native American language.
American Imperialism in 1898, The Quest for National Fulfillment,
New York University Press, 1970, Richard H. Miller
Chronology and Documentary Handbook of the State of Hawaii, Oceana Publications, Inc., Dobbs Ferry, New York, 1978, Eds. Helen Jennings, William F. Swindler.
"Environment Hawaii," Environment Hawaii, Inc., Hilo, HI, Volume 8, Number 2, August 1997, Editor Patricia Tummons
Expansionists of 1898, The Acquisition of Hawaii and the Spanish Islands, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1936, Julius W. Pratt
Hawaii, A Literary Chronicle, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1967, W. Storrs Lee.
"The Hawaii Water Code: Its Evolution," William M. Tam, Department of Attorney General, Speaker at Ke'anae-Wailuanui Water Conference, Ke'anae YMCA, August 18-19, 1997
Holy Rosary Church, Paia, Maui
"Islands of Exile," Carol Silva, Spirit of Aloha Magazine, Aloha Airlines, December 1977
Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai
Maui Historical Society, Wailuku, Maui
Maui Multi-Cultural Council
"Movement of People and Ideas Across the Pacific," George F. Carter, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Plants and the Migrations of Pacific Peoples, A Symposium, Tenth Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, HI 1961, Bishop Museum Press, 1963, edited by Jacques Barrau.
"The OHA Legislative Report; Ceded Lands -- An Historical Perspective" printed in the Maui News, April 2, 1997
The Penguin Guide to Hawaii 1991, Penguin Books, New York, General Editor, Alan Tucker, 1990
Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii, The Kamehameha School Press, Honolulu, 1992, Samuel M. Kamakau
"E Ola Ka 'Olelo Hawai'i: The Hawaiian Language Shall Live," Martha Noyes, Spirit of Aloha Magazine, Aloha Airlines, December 1977
"The United States and Hawaii During the Spanish-American War," Thomas A. Bailey, in Essays Diplomatic and Undiplomatic of Thomas A. Bailey, Appleton-Century-Crofts Educational Division, Meredith Corporation, New York, 1969, Alexander De Conde and Armin Rappaport
Maui Island Guide
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